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Best Pre-Workout Supplements for Men in 2019 [UPDATED]

Pre-workout supplements are designed to amplify and enhance your workout. Using a combination of ingredients, a high-quality pre-workout should help you improve your performance in the gym and possibly the results afterwards.

A great pre-workout should be:

  • Safe
  • Effective
  • All-natural
  • Good value for money

Each of the pre-workout supplements on this list have been examined against our strict criterion to find out which is the best product for 2019. We’ve ranked their effectiveness and efficiency by referencing the latest research – so you can find the optimal choice for your goals.

As a team, we have years of experience immersed in the supplement industry. We understand what makes a great product, while also being able to detect low-quality imitations when they arise. To score highly against our review criteria; a supplement must be safe, researched, intelligently served and ultimately, good value for money.

Pre-workout supplements need to meet an incredibly high standard. As they’re designed to amplify your physical performance, their effectiveness directly translates in your experience as a user. Those that provide the drive, motivation, and support for a bigger workout can certainly accelerate your results. Poorly made alternatives, however, may do more harm than good.

Choosing the right pre-workout for you can depend on both your goals and how you react to certain ingredients. You may be looking for a potent formula to offer focus and energy for intense strength training sessions. Alternatively, you may be sensitive to things like caffeine, but still want something to provide drive and motivation. This review should help you pinpoint the perfect product for your ambitions.

Benefits of pre-workout supplements

High-quality pre-workout supplements may offer support in numerous ways. Many supplements are created with the intention of providing aid before, during, and post-workout.

Research suggests that many common pre-workout ingredients can:

  • Increase energy levels
  • Cause vasodilation – muscle pumps
  • Improve bloodflow
  • Enhance endurance
  • Reduce muscle soreness

Pre-workout supplements are designed to be taken before you exercise. Improving how you perform is their primary goal, which they look to achieve through various avenues.

Depending which supplement you choose, this might be by increasing feelings of energy. Men who prefer these pre-workouts often find they help provide motivation to tackle tough workouts. Furthermore, they may reduce feelings of fatigue, allowing for more work to be done and improved body composition [1] [2].

High-quality pre-workout supplements might not just stop at energy. Focus during exercise may be one of their benefits, potentially allowing athletes to perfect their form, make better plays, or increase accuracy. Muscle pumps and vasodilation could be a primary goal as well – something bodybuilders especially look for.

Recovery is a common focal point for newer pre-workouts. These products look to support athletes not just when they’re exercising, but afterwards too. We will cover pre-workout ingredients that aid recovery further in this review.

Rest assured that the supplements included in this list have stood out to us in terms of potential safety and effectiveness. Note that none have been proven to work under scientific conditions – it’s their ingredients that have supporting evidence. We will reference relevant papers and studies to each of these ingredients throughout.

What we’ve looked out for:

Informative reviews must be reputable, impartial and well-researched. Therefore, each supplement assessed must be done so equally. We do this by applying our strict criterion to every product in the same way.

How we review the best pre-workouts

First, we find a high-quality, reputable supplement to examine. To do this, we study the market for tested standouts and new promising brands in order to select products for contention.

Low-quality supplements are not chosen for review as we don’t see it as a productive use of our time or yours.

Cross-referencing ingredients against recent research is our next step. Doing this allows us to establish potential effectiveness, as well as safety. We then weigh up effectiveness (and quality) with cost to see if the pre-workout is worth the price.

Examining the complete package of a pre-workout is just as important to us as individual pros and cons. That’s why we break down our review into these sections, and then compile our findings at the end. Our overall opinion is generated by compiling these smaller parts.

What makes a pre-workout safe?

To deem a pre-workout at potentially safe we must see:

  • Complete transparency
  • Zero unwanted side-effects
  • Well researched servings
  • No proprietary blends
  • Good manufacturing process

Pre-workouts with considerable research behind them are the only one’s worthwhile purchasing. Otherwise, you may be left with a potentially uncomfortable experience, or a product that does not perform as promised.

Proprietary blends should be something buyers look for at all times. These are undisclosed blends of ingredients that by law manufacturers do not have to show. Less-reputable companies use this loophole in the law to hide fillers, synthetics, or dangerous ingredients they don’t want customers to see. For this reason, we advise avoiding proprietary blends at all costs.

You can be confident that no pre-workout supplement on our list contains a proprietary blend. Spot Me Bro will never review supplements we deem as potentially unsafe.

How we consider price/value

Including price and value is the only way we can tell you if the supplements are worth your money. After all, how much a supplement costs can be a decision maker in many cases.

Measuring up the overall price against the quality and quantity of a pre-workout helps us establish a value score. For example, a high-quality premium product that costs a little extra can be good value. Alternatively, a cheaper but lower-quality imitation might still score badly despite it being less money.

Our objective during this step of the review is to see if your money’s worth.

How we measure effectiveness

Men use pre-workout supplements expecting results. Effectiveness is usually the main priority as we want to see progress when we buy a supplement. As a result, it stands at the forefront of our reviews.

Measuring effectiveness is possible by pulling apart a product formula and inspecting the individual components. While doing this, we ask:

  • Does the formula contain compounds proven to enhance exercise?
  • What research is available to support serving sizes?
  • Can any of the ingredients be considered fillers?
  • Does the formula line up with current, up-to-date studies?
  • Are there risks of side effects? If so, how high?
  • Should the serving sizes be effective?

Understandably, we can’t answer these questions without evidence to support out claims. Scientific studies, research papers, and meta-analyses are the tools for this task. Referring to reputable sources ensures we only give exact, reliable information.

Cross referencing this cutting-edge data and knowledge allows us to assess the effectiveness of individual ingredients. The more likely an ingredient is to provide its proposed benefits, the higher the score. While no supplement as a whole on this list is proven to work under scientific conditions – their individual components might.

Key point: Ingredients are inspected on their own against cutting-edge research knowledge. What we find is then gathered to determine the potential effectiveness of the complete formula.

How we select which pre-workouts to review

Finding the right pre-workouts to review is a case of spending time in the field. We search online marketplaces, reviews, forums, and importantly, the gym floor to find products making noise.

Time tested supplements typically stand out right away due their popularity. Innovative newer players also pique our interest, especially if they’re looking to expand the boundaries by trying new formulas.

Most supplements we initially find do not meet our high standard. These are often under- or over-filled, packed with bulking ingredients, contain chemicals, or lack substantial scientific evidence. Anything containing proprietary blends is instantly cut from the list.

Natural stacks are the only supplements we will review. Being so selective allows us to quality-control our list from the start. Transparent supplements that make the cut show men exactly what they will be taking, while also allowing us to make a closer safety assessment.

Pre-workouts we deem suitable for review are then tested against our strict criterion. This is uniform and doesn’t change from product to product. Each pre-workout supplement is measured in the exact same way to ensure impartial judgement across the board.

Summary: Products that stand out in the crowded marketplace are the only ones that make our shortlist. We do not review or rate average/low-quality supplements. Each pre-workout in this list impressed us with its effectiveness, value, and safety.

Keep reading to find out the best pre-workouts available in 2019.

The best pre-workouts you can buy in 2019

2

SPORT Pre

Bottle of Performance Lab SPORT Pre to show product
  • Cutting-edge formula
  • Streamlined
  • Natural ingredients
  • High quality
3

PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout

Packet of PreSeries BULK
  • Well researched
  • Muscle building
  • Testosterone support
  • Multi-buy discount

4

Pre JYM

Container of Pre JYM pre workout
  • No proprietary blends
  • Research backed
  • High energy
  • Muscle support
5

THE Pre-Workout™

  • Double-caffeine
  • Metabolism support
  • No proprietary blends
  • Natural

Read the full reviews

2

Performance Lab SPORT Pre-Workout

 

 

Buy now

at www.performancelab.com

Pros

  • Streamlined formula
  • Stimulant-free
  • Enhanced blood flow and oxygenation
  • Clinically served
  • Vegan
  • Multi-buy options

Cons

Meet SPORT Pre-Workout

Performance Lab’s SPORT Pre-Workout is our top caffeine-free supplement promising to give you a boost in the gym. According to the official website, it’s “muscle-priming nutrition for high-intensity training” is designed specifically for performance.

SPORT Pre looks to enhance your exercise experience on four fronts. Rather than directly stimulate and energize with caffeine; it aims to raise blood flow, enhance ATP energy, and improve endurance.

Performance Lab say SPORT Pre-Workout can:

  • Raise nitric oxide to enhance muscle blood flow and oxygenation
  • Enhance anaerobic and aerobic exercise via ATP
  • Sustain NO activity for strength and recovery benefits
  • Improve endurance by buffering and hydrating muscles

Naturally, it’s easy for supplement companies to make any claim. Therefore, we must cross-examine each ingredient with reputable sources to see if they’re possible.

SPORT Pre-Workout also possesses appealing qualities outside of pure performance. It’s 100% natural, vegan friendly, and is synthetic additive free too. There are also guarantees of no gluten or soy in the product too, with the website stating it is common allergen free. They also say it’s well-tolerated to best support long term training programs.

Keep reading to find out why SPORT Pre-Workout scored second place.

How does SPORT Pre-Workout work?

Unlike most pre-workout supplements this one doesn’t try to influence energy via stimulants.

Vasodilation should occur, which is the relaxing and expanding of blood vessels. Studies have linked this increased blood flow phenomenon to enhanced muscle pumps and better muscle building gains [7] [8].

ATP regeneration should also be improved via the use of Creatine and Cordyceps Super™ [4] [13]. This should allow for longer bouts of intense exercise.

Many of SPORT Pre’s ingredients should also work together to buffer fatigue. L-Glutamine, for example, is said to help clear lactic acid, whereas L-Carnosine is intended to act like an intracellular alkaline source to regulate pH.

In addition to this, SPORT Pre-Workout also aims to support hydration via Himalayan Pink Salt.

What ingredients are in SPORT Pre-Workout?

Creatine

This an organic compound that’s highly concentrated within muscle tissue. It’s stored to be used during ATP generation for fuel during high-intensity exercise.

Studies have shown creatine is a powerful tool for improving athletic performance. Research into creatine has shown it’s beneficial not only during strength training, but for endurance too [4]. It can also stimulate IGF-1 to promote the development of lean muscle mass [5].

L-Citrulline

Commonly found in watermelon, this amino acid naturally boosts L-Arginine blood levels. In turn, this should elevate nitric oxide production to promote vasodilation and better blood flow, also resulting in muscle pumps for enhanced muscle gains [14] [8].

Further studies have also shown increased NO via L-Citrulline supplementation to increase endurance [15]. Some suggest L-Citrulline can delay time to muscle failure by buffering concentrations of ammonia in muscle [16] [17].

Cordyceps Super™

Cordyceps is a natural fungus used in traditional medicine as a revitalising tonic. Recent research, however, shows it’s also useful for combating exercise fatigue [18]. By taking it, you may be able to work out for longer before getting tired – increasing potential gains.

Scientists believe it works by activating metabolic regulators and a coordinated antioxidant response. As a result, enhanced blood flow may help to clear out lactic acid from muscles – extending time to fatigue [18].

L-Glutamine (from Ajinomoto®)

L-Glutamine plays a pivotal part in protein metabolism and also functions as a primary carrier of nitrogen. As already discussed, nitrogen is necessary for supporting muscle energy, which could improve gains via muscle pumps [8].

Research suggests L-Glutamine could improve some fatigue parameters [19]; while also benefiting muscle soreness following eccentric exercise [20].

L-Carnosine

L-Carnosine is a dipeptide molecule found deep with fast-twitch muscle fibers. It’s been included in SPORT Pre to protect your physique during exercise as well as boost exercise performance.

Scientists believe L-Carnosine can increase both oxygen and power output – something that could result in a bigger, more impactful workout. They also suggest it could have positive impacts on recovery too and reduce muscle injury risk [21].

Serving Size: 4 Capsules
Servings Per Container: 30
Amount Per Serving% Daily Value
Sodium (from Himalayan Pink Salt)140 mg6
Creatine (as Creapure® pH10)1000 mg**
Cordyceps Sinensis (as Cordyceps Super™)750 mg**
L-Citrulline500 mg**
L-Glutamine (from Ajinomoto®)250 mg**
L-Carnosine (N-beta-alanyl-histidine)300 mg**
Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pinus pinaster)100 mg**
** Daily Value not established
Percent daily values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.

Is SPORT Pre-Workout safe?

Given the all-natural and transparent ingredient profile of SPORT Pre it scored highly on our safety test. Our team saw no ingredients that caused immediate concern.

Servings sizes are also well distributed and shouldn’t cause side-effects. Naturally, these may occur in very rare circumstances, but this shouldn’t be the case for most users. Each serving size should be effective without causing unpleasant repercussions.

SPORT Pre is also created alongside good manufacturing guidelines too. This significantly reduces the risk of cross-contamination compared to low-quality, cheaply made alternatives. For us, this another reason to score the safety of SPORT Pre highly.

To experience this pre-workout in its safest form always follow manufacturer guidelines

What are people saying about SPORT Pre-Workout?

In comparison to our number one pick 4 Gauge, SPORT Pre hasn’t been on the market for nearly as long. Yet, it’s gained quite a reputation as a solid stimulant free pre-workout product.

Here are a few key points taken from online reviews:

  • legwork.guide – “There are many pre-workout supplement products on the market, so would we recommend that you choose THIS one? We would! Simply because it is a safe, 100% natural product, designed to help with muscle building and energy production.”
  • TheSportReview.com – “Is this the best pre-workout for you? That depends. Do you want a clean, vegan-friendly pre-workout from an ethical manufacturer? That’s one question to ask yourself.”
  • KryoLife.com – “All the ingredients are herbal in nature and vegan-friendly as well; plus if your health conscious then this product is gluten, soy, caffeine, and allergens free making it one of the most compelling product in the pre-workout supplement genre.”
  • SupplementReviewsUK.com – “We love that there’s now an effective pre-workout that doesn’t need caffeine or stimulants to do its job. Performance Lab® SPORT Pre-Workout is a genuinely clean and natural supplement.”

All reviewers point out that the lack of caffeine may be a possible downside for some men. While we see it as a potential positive, you may want to consider if you prefer pre-workouts with or without stimulants.

How to take SPORT Pre-Workout

Performance Lab deliver their SPORT Pre in capsule form rather than powder. For us, this is a sign of innovation and a great way to ensure strict serving sizes.

According to Performance Lab you should take four to six capsules 45-60 minutes before exercise with 16-32 oz of water.

You’re also encouraged to take this supplement consistently for the best results. This is most likely to build up stores of SPORT Pre’s key ingredients in your body.

The cost of SPORT Pre-Workout

One bottle of SPORT Pre contains 120 capsules, which amounts to a 30-day supply. If you choose to take more than four capsules a day your bottle won’t last as long.

A single bottle of SPORT Pre costs $30/£20.

Discounts are also applied to order when two or more bottles are purchased. Buying two at once is rewarded with a 5% discount ($57/£38) whereas three qualifies for 10% ($81/£54).

Using these offers could save you money over time. We recommend considering them if you plan to use SPORT Pre for over a month.

QUANTITYUSD ($)GBP (£)SHIPPING
1 Bottle$30£20$9.95/£3.95
2 Bottles$57£38$9.95/£3.95
3 Bottles$81£154$9.95/£3.95

Final thoughts on SPORT Pre

Performance Lab’s SPORT Pre successfully took second place because of its innovative take on pre-workout supplementation. Unlike many of its competitor, it holds a less stimulant driven energy focus– homing in on enhancing muscle function, fatigue, and recovery instead.

Taking SPORT Pre should result in a bigger, more efficient workout experience. You should be able to work harder for longer and recover better afterward. While you may not feel as alert as when taking caffeinated pre-workouts, but you should still feel your performance increase.

We also like how Performance Lab are an ethical company who look to source the highest-grade ingredients. Their supplements are vegan, gluten, and allergen free too – another thing we find can be important for men today. To us this is a sign of a company that likes to keep up with the times.

Their price is fair too for the quality of SPORT Pre. While it isn’t quite the premium supplement 4 Gauge is, it’s still manufactured to good standards, and is filled with well-researched ingredients. For these reasons we feel the overall cost of SPORT Pre is fair.

Summary: SPORT Pre stands out as the most impressive stimulant free pre-workout on the market. It’s research-backed, well put together, and constructed using ethically sourced, high-grade ingredients. SPORT Pre is an innovative product for all men.

 

Buy now

at www.performancelab.com

3

PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout

 

 

Buy now

at www.transparentlabs.com

Pros

  • Should promote muscle building
  • Testosterone support
  • Recovery agents
  • Natural formula
  • Free from proprietary blends
  • Multi-buy rewards
  • Flavor options
  • Vegan

Cons

  • High price
  • Beta Alanine could cause tingling

Meet PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout

Transparent Labs have broken onto the market with what they’re calling the best bulking pre-workout. It impressed our team in both its approach to boosting muscle building and the 19 ingredients involved.

Almost all supplements within fitness promise to provide help in building mass. But, how can a pre-workout actually be tailored toward athletes looking to bulk? After seeing Transparent Labs promise this, we were intrigued and decided to dig deeper. Only by looking into the research behind it could we decide how effective their pre-workout could be.

PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout claims to:

  • Increase nitric oxide
  • Promote muscle pumps
  • Support testosterone
  • Provide focus
  • Reduce fatigue and muscle soreness
  • Enhance physical performance

After checking current research, we were able to find support for Transparent Lab’s choice of ingredients. Our team also saw how these claims could theoretically be achieved too.

Keep reading to see if PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout is the muscle builder it promises.

How does PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout work?

PreSeries Bulk Pre-Workout comes in a powder form, which can be mixed with water to create a drink.

Once inside the body this pre-workout looks to work in numerous ways. Firstly, you should experience a noticeable energy boost from the likes of Caffeine Anhydrous – smoothed out by the focus supporter L-Theanine. This works alongside N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine which may also help you to focus and stay motivated.

Muscle fatigue should also be delayed from ingredients such as Beta-Alanine, L-Norvaline, and Citrulline Malate, the last two being powerful muscle pump promoters. These longer, more intense workouts are then backed up by BCAAs and BetaPure™ Betaine Anhydrous to enhance muscle building.

Testosterone support is another key component of PreSeries Bulk Pre-Workout. Vitamin D, Boron, and Zinc all play a part in optimizing the anabolic hormone responsible for regulating muscle. Research suggests that thriving testosterone levels promote increased lean mass [22].

What ingredients are in PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout?

Citrulline Malate

Transparent Labs call this ingredient the “star child” or pre-workout supplements. Research suggests it can have double the effect of L-arginine as raising nitric oxide, which as previously mentioned is vital for muscle pumps and endurance [23].

Citrulline Malate has also been proven to enhance three important workout goals – strength, aerobic performance, and muscle endurance [24]. Furthermore, it’s also shown to increase creatine reactivation for prolonged intense exercise [25].

Beta-Alanine

Beta-Alanine supplementation improves cellular carnosine levels that are rapidly lost during intense exercise [26] [27]. The serving size included in this supplement is generous in comparison to many other pre-workouts.

As a result, it should help delay neuromuscular fatigue, increase muscle strength, and boost endurance [28][29][30]. Other studies have also linked supplementation to increased lean mass in wrestlers [31].

BCAA 2:1:1

This is a combination of leucine, isoleucine, and valine; three branched chain amino acids added in a 2:1:1 ratio. They’re included to support muscle growth.

Research suggests leucine is the most anabolic amino acid and a potent activator of the gene responsible for protein synthesis. Use has been shown to boost strength during workouts and protect against muscle degradation [32][33].

Isoleucine has also been shown to benefit muscle building. It does so by aiding intra-workout metabolism and enhancing muscle growth, while promoting anti-catabolism too [34][35][36].

Valine is included to aid metabolism and muscle building, alongside reducing tryptophan build up in the brain. According to Transparent Labs this results in more energy and endurance.

BetaPure ™ Betaine Anhydrous

Supplementing with Betaine has been shown to benefit bulking in many ways. Firstly, it’s proven to reduce fatigue during weight training, allowing for more repetitions to be completed [37][38][39].

Betaine can also enhance phosphocreatine replenishment between sets if taken every day [40]. When combined with its ability to increase HGH and IGF-1, all while reducing cortisol [41], these two factors should result in accelerated muscle growth.

Testosterone Support

Vitamin D3, Boron, and Zinc are the components within the complex. Each one has proven links to healthy testosterone production, making them common inside testosterone boosting supplements [42][43][44].

Healthy levels of testosterone can support both workouts and muscle building. Not only is it a regulator of energy and mood, but lean mass too [45].

Serving Size: 1 Scoop (22.08g)
Servings Per Container: 30
Amount Per Serving% Daily Value
Vitamin D3 (as Forslean®) (std. for min. 10% forskolin)3,000 IU750%
Zinc (as Zinc AAC)30 mg200%
Boron (as Boron Citrate)5 mg*
Citrulline Malate 2:16,000 mg*
Beta-Alanine4,000 mg*
BCAA 2:1:1 (Instantized)4,000 mg*
BetaPure™ Betaine Anhydrous2,500 mg*
Taurine1,300 mg*
N-Acetyle L-Tyrosine600 mg*
Choline Bitartrate500 mg*
L-Theanine360 mg*
Caffeine Anhydrous180 mg*
Mucuna Pruriens (98% L-Dopa)70 mg*
L-Norvaline60 mg*
Synephrine HCI50 mg*
Hordenine25 mg*
BioPerine® (Black Pepper Extact) (95% Piperine)5 mg*
* Daily Value not established

Is PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout safe?

Despite having 19 ingredients and a large serving size this pre-workout should be safe to consume. It doesn’t feature any worrying elements or dangerous quantities.

Proprietary blends aren’t an issue with PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout either. Each ingredient is labeled clearly for users to see, which inspires trust. As the name suggests, Transparent Labs aren’t hiding things behind clever marketable terms.

This supplement is also free from artificial sweeteners, colorings, and preservatives too. It’s therefore very clean and natural, limiting risk of side-effects.

Another limit on side-effects is established by using good manufacturing practices. As a result, this pre-workout is less likely to be contaminated by other ingredients, boosting its safety score higher.

What are people saying about Pre-Series BULK Pre-Workout?

Because of PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout’s claims of muscle building, many reviewers were keen to try it. As a result, we were able to find many opinions and critiques online.

Here are a handful of key excerpts taken from them:

  • BarBend.com – “It’s hard to find fault with this pre-workout. It’s extraordinarily well dosed for endurance, power, and focus; it’s got black pepper extract to help everything absorb; it’s reasonably priced; and the zinc and Vitamin D make it pretty nutritious and possibly good for your testosterone.”
  • Top10Supps.com – “This product delivers the goods in terms of quality, quantity, taste, effectiveness, and of course value for money, so if you are in the market for a pre-workout supplement that you can depend upon then I would very strongly recommend checking this one out.”
  • BestWorkoutSupplementsBlog.com – “The performance enhancement and overall ergogenic benefit outweighs everything else on the market.”
  • SupplementReviewsUK.com – “If you want crazy energy, you should look somewhere else. If you want an all-round product to help with endurance and focus give this a shot.”

Many reviewers also mention the $49.00 price of PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout. While a heavy majority believe it’s worth the cost because of effectiveness and quality, they also see it as a possible downside. It could be over-budget for some.

How to take PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout?

Transparent Labs have chosen to use the popular powder method of delivering their pre-workout. It’s also the biggest single scoop we’ve seen at 22.08 g on average.

We recommend following manufacturer guidelines when taking this pre-workout. They say you should take PreSeries BULK 20-30 minutes before working out. It’s also advised you start with half a scoop mixed with 8-12 fl. oz of water to assess tolerance. A full scoop should be mixed with 16-24 fl. oz of water.

What is the cost of PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout?

One bag of PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout contains 30, single-scoop servings.

A single bag costs: $49.00/£39.25

Multi-buy offers are also available for purchasing one bag at a time. Two bags are reduced to $89.00/£71.29, whereas three are discounted even further to $119.00/£95.32.

We recommend making the most of these multi-buy offers if you plan to use this pre-workout for longer than 30-days. Doing so could save you money not only on your supplement but shipping too.

QUANTITYUSD ($)GBP (£)SHIPPING
1 Bag$49.00£39.25$7.00/£11.41
2 Bottles$89.00£71.29$7.00/£11.41
3 Bottles$119.00£95.32$7.00£11.41

Final thoughts on PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout

Not many pre-workout supplements take bulking as seriously as this one. At 19 ingredients strong, it’s filled with compounds proven to aid both muscle building and exercise performance. It isn’t just a standalone pre-workout to give you energy – it’s a complete system to bolster recovery and growth too. What’s more, this product is also vegan, has multiple flavors, and is additive-free.

By using PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout you should be able to train harder, for longer in the gym. This should translate to greater gains at a faster rate. You may also find progress is promoted through other means, like more efficient recovery. It’s for these reasons we recommend this pre-workout to any man looking to build lean mass.

We especially liked how PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout offered testosterone support. As the primary male sex hormone, this is the one responsible for many traits like elevated muscle mass, mood, energy, and strength. Healthy testosterone supported by these ingredients is integral for helping you achieve your muscle building goals.

Finally, we understand that many reviewers, including ourselves, commented on cost. PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout definitely isn’t the cheapest product on the market. However, at 19 proven ingredients strong, it warrants the price. Our team saw this pre as one created without compromise, which always results in a higher cost.

Summary: We recommend this as the best pre-workout for bulking athletes. It has an extensive formula filled with 19 proven ingredients to suit your goal. If you’re looking for a cheaper, streamlined pre-workout this isn’t it. PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout is a comprehensive product that takes multiple approaches to muscle building and energy.

 

Buy now

at www.transparentlabs.com

4

Pre JYM

 

Container of Pre JYM pre workout

 

Buy now

at www.bodybuilding.com

Pros

  • Zero proprietary blends
  • Multiple flavor options
  • Smart serving sizes
  • May support muscle
  • No concentrates

Cons

  • Artificial ingredients
  • Not completely natural
  • High caffeine

Meet Pre JYM

Created by respected nutrition and exercise scientist Jim Stoppani, Ph.D., Pre Jym has been on the pre-workout market since 2013. According to the manufacturer, it was known as the first high-performance pre-workout supplement.

Dr. Jim Stoppani apparently created this pre-workout to allow athletes to unlock the critical elements to fitness success:

  • Motivation
  • Performance
  • Transformation
  • Growth

It looks to do this via 13, well-researched ingredients. But, can it deliver the unreal results it promises? We’ll inspect the ingredients to find out.

How does Pre JYM work?

Pre Jym should work similar to most pre-workouts. First, its powder is mixed with water and drunk 30-45 minutes before exercise. Next, the individual ingredients should start to take effect on the body.

Users should experience an energy boost thank to the sole stimulant Caffeine Anhydrous. It then utilizes nutrients to further promote energy and delay fatigue via BCAA’s, Beta-Alanine, Taurine, Citrulline Malate, and Beet Root extract.

BCAA’s are also included to aid muscle building and preservation. This is something bolstered by this pre-workout’s patented creatine form – CON-CRET®. Creatine is one of the most rigorously tested and proven workout boosters on the planet, allowing for increased power, strength, and endurance [4].

What ingredients are in Pre JYM?

Caffeine Anhydrous

Caffeine is a highly popular pre-workout ingredient due to its ability to enhance energy and alertness. Scientists recognize it as a powerful, natural ergogenic aid for boosting exercise performance.

According to the ISSN, it can improve endurance, high-intensity performance, strength-power ability, and even cognitive function [3]. They also state that Caffeine Anhydrous, the form used in this pre-workout, is more effective than coffee or tea.

Creatine HCI (as CON-CRET®)

Creatine is recognized as one of the most widely studied and proven ergogenic aids. Increasing intramuscular creatine concentration has been shown to improve high-intensity exercise performance, resulting in greater adaptations.

In short, the ISSN confirm that Creatine supplementation can increase strength, power, mass gains, and promote lean body composition [4]. In the same paper they also announced it could reduce the risk of sports injury and benefit recovery [4].

Beta-Alanine

Beta-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid proven to enhance exercise performance. It works alongside histidine to produce carnosine, which then reduces lactic acid build up during exercise.

Studies show that this can lead to enhanced athletic performance [46][47]. Time to exhaustion can be extended and exercise duration improved. In plain terms, you may be able to train harder, for longer.

Taurine

Commonly found in energy drinks, Taurine is another ingredient included to delay fatigue. Human studies back this too, with numerous proving its ability to remove fatigue- and muscle-burn causing waste products, as well as protecting against cell damage [48][49][50].

Scientists believe that the benefits of Taurine extend to post-workout too. Weightlifters undergoing an intensive routine showed less markers of muscle damage and muscle-soreness in other studies [51] [52].

Citrulline Malate

Citrulline Malate is another popular pre-workout ingredient due to its ability to widen blood vessels and cause muscle pumps [53]. According to scientists, this could play a role in muscle building and exercise performance by improving the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway [54].

Furthermore, muscle pumps have also been shown to increase gains [8]. Coupled with connections to stimulating protein synthesis [8], Citrulline Malate is an impressive ingredient.

Serving Size: 1 Scoop (26 g)
Servings Per Container: 30
Amount Per ServingIntake
Energy (KJ)335 KJ15%*
Energy (kcal)80 kcal15%
Carbohydrate3 g1%*
Of Which Sugars2 g**
Salt (As Sodium Chloride)240 mg4%
Citrulline Malate6 g**
L-Leucine3 g**
L-Isoleucine1.5 g**
L-Valine1.5 g**
Creatine HCI (as CON-CRET®)2 g**
Beta-Alanine (CarnoSyn®)2 g**
Betaine (Trimethylglycine)1.5 g**
L-Tyrosine1.5 g**
Taurine1 g**
Beet (Beta vulgaris) Root Extract500 mg**
Choline Bitartrate350 mg**
Caffeine Anhydrous300 mg**
Alpha-Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline (as AlphaSize®)150 mg**
N-Acetyl L-Cysteine100 mg**
Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) Fruit Extract (as BioPerine®)5 mg**
*  Reference Intake of an average adult (8400kJ/2000 kcal).

** Reference Intakes not established.

Is Pre JYM safe?

Upon inspection our team didn’t discover any ingredients that caused concern. Serving sizes were well-optimized too, leading us to suggest this supplement should be safe for consumption.

What we liked about Pre Jym is that it takes a stance against proprietary blends. By being transparent this pre-workout offers its users an opportunity to see exactly what they’re taking and in what amounts. For us, this transparency is trustworthy.

When we checked online reviews, others also saw the 300 mg caffeine per serving as being high. Therefore, we recommend trying a smaller scoop first to gauge tolerance.

However, this product is not all-natural, which lowers the safety standard slightly. It is also created in a facility that handles allergens, so it is best to check this supplement with your doctor before taking it. We also advise taking it no later than five hours before sleep because of the caffeine content.

What are people saying about Pre JYM?

Thanks to the status of Dr. Jim Stoppani and the history of Pre JYM there are many reviews for this product. Most are impressed.

Here are numerous key excerpts taken from these reviews:

  • Barbend.com – “For starters, it’s pretty remarkable that this is a pre-workout with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). A lot of folks like to take BCAAs with a pre-workout, since BCAAs are linked to improved muscle retention, focus, and endurance. So this makes Pre JYM something of a two-in-one supplement.”
  • TheSportReview.com – “There are some pretty good ingredients in Pre Jym, and we like the fact that the manufacturers have been completely transparent and listed the exact substances and doses on the label.”
  • BlueCloud.com – “This pre workout contains a high amount of caffeine (300mg). If you are sensitive to caffeine make sure to start out with just half a scoop to assert tolerance.”
  • RussHowePTI.com – “A full clinical dose of 6g citrulline malate will provide you with enhanced training endurance, improved recovery between sets and a great pump. Couple this with a 2 gram serving of beta-alanine to delay the onset of lactic acid, and you should see some rather impressive boosts to workout performance with Pre Jym”

Almost all reviews were positive about the intricate and innovative formula of Pre JYM. However, there were possible downsides. Some reviewers mentioned that they thought the 300 mg caffeine content was high.

Beta Alanine was also an issue for others. They thought that the serving size might not be enough to have the best effect. While we somewhat agree, we still consider the inclusion a bonus in this pre-workout.

How to take Pre JYM

To experience the intended effects of Pre JYM you should follow the manufacturer guidelines. If you’re sensitive to stimulants, however, we advise taking a smaller serving size to test your response.

Pre JYM directs users to mix one scoop with 14 oz. of water and drink 30-45 minutes before workouts.

Due to the high caffeine content we don’t advise taking Pre JYM any closer than five hours before you plan to sleep. For safety never overstep manufacturer guidelines.

What is the cost of Pre JYM?

Because Pre Jym can be purchased from multiple outlets, the price can vary.

However, one standard container comes with 20, 26 g servings whereas a larger container has 30, 26 g servings. We have taken our prices from the most popular online retailer at the time of writing.

One standard 20-serving container costs: $37.99/ –

One larger 30-serving container costs: $48.99/£39.99

QUANTITYUSD ($)GBP (£)SHIPPING
20-Servings$37.99£ –Varies
30-Servings$48.99£39.99Varies

Final thoughts on Pre JYM

Pre JYM has established itself as one of the most popular pre-workouts on the market thanks to the innovation of Dr. Jim Stoppani. We were impressed by its expansive ingredient selection and method of supporting muscle building.

According to the manufacturer, Pre JYM is built on science and decades of professional experience. It certainly favors well-researched ingredients over high stimulant levels.

Users should be able to muster more effective workouts and recover better too. While it isn’t quite the pioneering market leader it claims to be, Pre JYM is certainly impressive.

Our only cause for concern was the fact this pre-workout contains 300 mg of Caffeine Anhydrous as standard. This could be considered a powerful amount, especially for men who are sensitive to stimulants. For this reason, we recommend trying a smaller serving first, which might impact the other ingredients. This is why Pre JYM is in fourth place and not any higher.

The price could be considered fair too. Pre JYM is a high-quality supplement that isn’t overpriced, given that it contains 13 proven ingredients. However, we feel that an increase in cost may change our opinion because it isn’t an all-natural product.

Summary: Pre JYM is a good choice for men looking for all-round physique support and energy during exercise. It offers multiple avenues for delaying fatigue and possesses multiple muscle building ingredients as well. However, the 300 mg caffeine content could be high for some.

 

Container of Pre JYM pre workout

 

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5

THE Pre-Workout+™

 

Buy now

at www.myprotein.com

Pros

  • Well-researched ingredients
  • Smart time-release formula
  • Focus and energy driven

Cons

  • Large serving of caffeine
  • One flavor
  • Could be more generous with serving sizes

Meet Myprotein THE™ Pre-Workout+

Popular supplement company Myprotein have added their THE Pre-Workout+™ as part of their rebrand. It claims to use an “explosive blend of caffeine and creatine to give you the drive, focus, and energy to push peak performance.”

MyProtein say the key benefits of THE Pre-Workout+ are:

  • Creatine to improve physical performance
  • Caffeine to elevate endurance
  • Vitamin B6 to reduce tiredness
  • Added AstraGin®, BioPerine®, Capsimax®, and TeaCrine®

THE Pre-Workout+™ also offers support in more than just energy. There is a considerable fat burning element to this supplement too. The actual energy complex itself is formed from multiple parts, meaning it doesn’t rely solely on caffeine. For us, this is an interesting and outside-the-box approach.

Keep reading to see why THE Pre-Workout+™ made our exclusive list.

How does THE Pre-Workout+™ work?

THE Pre-Workout+™ is delivered in powder form, which is then mixed with water and taken as a shake. As it hits the stomach the ingredients inside should begin to be absorbed and start to influence the body.

Users should notice feelings of energy, alertness, and motivation as the stimulants inside begin to take effect. This sensation is intended to carry on through the workout too and help users perform a bigger, more efficient workout.

Fat burning should also excel so long as users are in a calorie deficit. This is thanks to the thermogenic compounds inside, which heat up the body and increase energy usage. Men looking to reduce their body fat might find this process appealing.

Amino acids are also added to this formula in an effort to help repair and maintain muscle. These should play a part in ensuring users recover well from their training and are successful in growing lean muscle mass.

What ingredients are in THE Pre-Workout+™?

Caffeine

Myprotein have decided to take a double-sided approach to caffeine in their pre-workout. Rather than opt for the single serving of caffeine, they have included Guarana extract too – a fruit potent in caffeine.

Research shows that caffeine can benefit exercise in many ways. Focus and motivation can be improved for mental support before and during tough sessions. Actual intra-workout feelings of energy and increases in endurance, power, and strength are possible too [3][55].

Citrulline malate

Extracted from watermelon, this ingredient has the ability to increase nitric oxide levels in the body. As a result, it can make blood vessels expand, enhance blood flow, and create muscle pumps.

Muscle pumps themselves have been shown to benefit muscle building [8]. Other studies have also linked citrulline malate to increased protein synthesis – an integral part of recovery and growth [9].

Furthermore, the vasodilating properties of citrulline malate means it can enhance endurance during exercise [15][16][25]. One of the ways it could help with this is by flushing away lactic acid build up.

Creatine Monohydrate

Creatine Monohydrate is the most popular form of this rigorously tested and proven supplement. Taking creatine helps build up the phosphocreatine stores inside your body, which are called upon to recharge ATP. You need this to perform high-intensity exercise.

Supplementing with creatine has many proven benefits including, but not limited to; increased power, enhanced endurance, greater strength, better recovery, cognitive health, and lower risk of injury [4].

Vitamin B6 & B12

B6 and B12 are two vitamins closely linked to metabolic health. They help to keep you energized and are key to combating fatigue.

Both are involved in the creation of red blood cells, which are used to transport oxygen around your body [56][57]. Healthy levels of vitamin B6 and B12 can help you feel energized before, during, and after exercise.

Leucine

This is arguably the most important branched chain amino acid for anabolism. It’s shown to activate protein synthesis, stimulating pathways in the body. This is the process your body undergoes to make new muscle [58].

As a result, supplementing with Leucine could help you accumulate greater amounts of muscle mass from working out over time.

Serving Size: 1 Scoop (12.9 g)
Servings Per Container: 30 (.85 lb)
Amount Per Serving%RI
Vitamins and Minerals
Niacin15 mg75%
Folate2000 ug50%
Vitamin B1250 ug833%
Sodium10 mg0.4%
Potassium97mg2.8%
Active ingredients
L-Citrulline Malate 1:13000 mg
Carnosyn Beta Alanine1600 mg
Betaine Anhydrous1500 mg
Creatine HCL1000 mg
Creatine Monohydrate1000 mg
L-Arginine AKG 2:1750 mg
N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine500 mg
Choline Bitartrate500 mg
Nitrosigine® (Arginine Silicate Inositol)375 mg
Caffeine150 mg
Theacrine (as TeaCrine®)50 mg
AstraGin® (Panax Notoginseng (Root) & Astragalus25 mg
BioPerine® (Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum Fruit Extract)2.5 mg
Yohimbe HCL1.5 mg
Alpha Yohimbine 90%1 mg
Capsimax® (Paprika (Capsicum Annuum) Fruit Extract500 ug
Other ingredients: Natural and Artificial Flavor

Is THE Pre-Worktout+ safe™?

Our team broke down every ingredient inside it and they couldn’t find anything that was deemed dangerous. This included the serving sizes too, which are both generous and potentially safe – although the 175 mg of caffeine could be considered high.

What’s more, THE™ Pre-Workout+ is free from proprietary blends. Transparency is paramount when establishing a safety score, and Myprotein impressed by labelling every ingredient clearly. Here, we were able to check exactly what was inside this pre-workout, instead of risking mysterious and often dangerous blends. As a team we never review or rate proprietary blends.

As this product contains stimulants, we advise users to test their reaction first. Never exceed manufacture guidelines and take a small serving first time around. Gauge how much you take next time based on how you felt.

What are people saying about THE Pre-Workout+™

Given Myprotein’s rebrand was recent there aren’t many reviews for this new pre-workout. However, our team did find opinions from other online supplement authorities.

It’s also important that you know this pre-workout was formerly known as MYPRE V2 – all that has changed is the name, not what’s inside it. For that reason, we’ll include insights into MYPRE V2 as well

Here are a few excerpts taken from other online reviews:

  • legwork.guide– “Formerly known as Mypre 2.0, THE Pre Workout™ is a scientifically designed supplement that claims to boost your energy, focus, and performance. THE™ Pre-Workout contains 175 mg of caffeine, which puts it on the low side for a pre-workout, but still more than the average cup of coffee.”
  • TheSportReview.com – “Although Mypre does tick a lot of boxes when it comes to the ingredients list, there are a few things missing from it that prevent us from rating it as one of the very best pre workout supplements.”
  • HumanWindow.com – “We must say that THE Pre-Workout ingredients formula is one of the better ones that we have come across recently, and it’s great that MyProtein have chosen not to use a proprietary blend with this supplement.”
  • Barbend.com – “It’s $27 for 38 servings, so 71 cents per serving. That’s really cheap. Most pre-workouts fall between 84 cents and 1 dollar per serving. The only pre-workout I’ve seen thus far that’s cheaper is MusclePharm Assault, which is 70 cents per scoop.”

Interestingly, reviewers seem to be conflicted at the 175 mg caffeine content. Some see it as not enough, while others consider it to be over the preferred serving of 150 mg per serving. As a team we side with the latter.

How to take THE Pre-Workout+™

Like many pre-workout supplements, THE Pre-Workout+™ is a powder intended to be mixed with water and drank.

Myprotein say you should mix one scoop with 300-400ml of water for best results. You should then drink the mixture 30 minutes before exercise.

Due to the caffeine content in this product we advise you follow manufacture guidelines. Also refrain from taking this product within five hours of when you plan to sleep.

What is the cost of THE Pre-Workout™?

One container contains 30 servings based on single 14-gram scoop sizes.

Each individual container of THE Pre-Workout™ costs: $39.99/£24.99

QUANTITYUSD ($)GBP (£)SHIPPING
1 Bottle$39.99£24.99$5.99/£3.99

Final thoughts on THE Pre-Workout™

Myprotein may have rebranded but their popular pre-workout supplement remains the same. It’s a multi-approach product that should not only enhance energy, but help build muscle and burn fat too.

According to the manufacturer this pre-workout is designed to allow users to push themselves to the limit. Given the evidence supporting the ingredients included, this could definitely be possible. While it might not be as impressive as the more premium supplements on this list it has the tools for a bigger, more effective workout.

What impressed our team the most was the inclusion of both thermogenic compounds and amino acids into the mix. These could be ideal additions for men who want a pre-workout to aid lean physique goals.

However, we did feel the serving sizes of some ingredients could be increased We’d have preferred to see a little more Beta Alanine and less caffeine. Overall though, the ingredient portions were well-thought out and sensible.

One final positive for our team was the affordability of this product. So long as users understand they are not getting a premium product, the price is more than fair. It appears to be cheaper than many other pre-workouts on the market at the same standard.

Summary: THE Pre-Workout™ is a solid option to not only to enhance a workout but achieve a leaner physique. While the muscle building and fat burning ingredients aren’t miracle compounds, they are proven to support a healthy exercise routine and diet. The price of this pre-workout is very fair and affordable too. We recommend it for men on a tighter budget.

 

 

Buy now

at www.myprotein.com

References

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[2] Bergstrom, H., Byrd, M., Wallace, B., & Clasey, J. (2018). Examination of a Multi-ingredient Preworkout Supplement on Total Volume of Resistance Exercise and Subsequent Strength and Power Performance. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research, 32(6), 1479-1490. doi: 10.1519/jsc.0000000000002480

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[16] Kiyici, F., Eroğlu, H., Kishali, N., & Burmaoglu, G. (2017). The Effect of Citrulline/Malate on Blood Lactate Levels in Intensive Exercise. Biochemical Genetics55(5-6), 387-394. doi: 10.1007/s10528-017-9807-8

[17] TAKEDA, K., MACHIDA, M., KOHARA, A., OMI, N., & TAKEMASA, T. (2011). Effects of Citrulline Supplementation on Fatigue and Exercise Performance in Mice. Journal Of Nutritional Science And Vitaminology57(3), 246-250. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.57.246

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[20] Legault, Z., Bagnall, N., & Kimmerly, D. (2015). The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric Exercise. International Journal Of Sport Nutrition And Exercise Metabolism25(5), 417-426. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0209

[21] Fielding, R., Riede, L., Lugo, J. P., & Bellamine, A. (2018). l-Carnitine Supplementation in Recovery after Exercise. Nutrients10(3), 349. doi:10.3390/nu10030349

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[23] Schwedhelm, E., Maas, R., Freese, R., Jung, D., Lukacs, Z., & Jambrecina, A. et al. (2008). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism. British Journal Of Clinical Pharmacology65(1), 51-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02990.x

[24] Álvares, T., Conte, C., Paschoalin, V., Silva, J., Meirelles, C., Bhambhani, Y., & Gomes, P. (2012). Acutel-arginine supplementation increases muscle blood volume but not strength performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, And Metabolism37(1), 115-126. doi: 10.1139/h11-144

[25] Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. (2010). Citrulline Malate Enhances Athletic Anaerobic Performance and Relieves Muscle Soreness. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research24(5), 1215-1222. doi: 10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181cb28e0

[26] DUNNETT, M., & HARRIS, R. (1999). Influence of oral ß-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of thegluteus medius. Equine Veterinary Journal31(S30), 499-504. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1999.tb05273.x

[27] Culbertson, J. Y., Kreider, R. B., Greenwood, M., & Cooke, M. (2010). Effects of beta-alanine on muscle carnosine and exercise performance: a review of the current literature. Nutrients2(1), 75–98. doi:10.3390/nu2010075

[28] Stout, J. R., Graves, B. S., Smith, A. E., Hartman, M. J., Cramer, J. T., Beck, T. W., & Harris, R. C. (2008). The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 Years): a double-blind randomized study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition5, 21. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-21

[29] Hoffman, J., Ratamess, N., Kang, J., Mangine, G., Faigenbaum, A., & Stout, J. (2006). Effect of Creatine and β-Alanine Supplementation on Performance and Endocrine Responses in Strength/Power Athletes. Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise38(Supplement), S126. doi: 10.1249/00005768-200605001-01454

[30] Hoffman, J., Ratamess, N., Faigenbaum, A., Ross, R., Kang, J., Stout, J., & Wise, J. (2008). Short-duration β-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Nutrition Research28(1), 31-35. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2007.11.004

[31] Kern, B., & Robinson, T. (2009). Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. Journal Of The International Society Of Sports Nutrition6(S1). doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-6-s1-p2

[32] The effects of dietary L-leucine supplementation on exercise performance. (2002). Journal Of Science And Medicine In Sport5(4), 89. doi: 10.1016/s1440-2440(02)80201-8

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[34] Kim E. (2009). Mechanisms of amino acid sensing in mTOR signaling pathway. Nutrition research and practice3(1), 64–71. doi:10.4162/nrp.2009.3.1.64

[35] Petzke, K. J., Freudenberg, A., & Klaus, S. (2014). Beyond the role of dietary protein and amino acids in the prevention of diet-induced obesity. International journal of molecular sciences15(1), 1374–1391. doi:10.3390/ijms15011374

[36] Qin, L. Q., Xun, P., Bujnowski, D., Daviglus, M. L., Van Horn, L., Stamler, J., … INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group (2011). Higher branched-chain amino acid intake is associated with a lower prevalence of being overweight or obese in middle-aged East Asian and Western adults. The Journal of nutrition141(2), 249–254. doi:10.3945/jn.110.128520

[37] Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., Rashti, S. L., & Faigenbaum, A. D. (2009). Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition6, 7. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-6-7

[38] Cholewa, J. M., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, M., Glowacki, R., Jakubowski, H., Matthews, T., Wood, R., … Paolone, V. (2013). Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition10(1), 39. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-39

[39] Trepanowski, J., Farney, T., McCarthy, C., Schilling, B., Craig, S., & Bloomer, R. (2011). The Effects of Chronic Betaine Supplementation on Exercise Performance, Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Saturation and Associated Biochemical Parameters in Resistance Trained Men. Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research25(12), 3461-3471. doi: 10.1519/jsc.0b013e318217d48d

[40] Claudino, J. G., Mezêncio, B., Amaral, S., Zanetti, V., Benatti, F., Roschel, H., … Serrão, J. C. (2014). Creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition11, 32. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-11-32

[41] Senesi, P., Luzi, L., Montesano, A., Mazzocchi, N., & Terruzzi, I. (2013). Betaine supplement enhances skeletal muscle differentiation in murine myoblasts via IGF-1 signaling activation. Journal of translational medicine11, 174. doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-174

[42] Pilz, S., Frisch, S., Koertke, H., Kuhn, J., Dreier, J., & Obermayer-Pietsch, B. et al. (2010). Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Testosterone Levels in Men. Hormone And Metabolic Research43(03), 223-225. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1269854

[43] Pizzorno L. (2015). Nothing Boring About Boron. Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.)14(4), 35–48.

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